Bio Medical Waste is hazardous to human health & environment. To tackle this problem, Govt. of India has notified Bio-Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules 1998 on 27th July 1998 under the Environment Protection Act, 1986 and the amendments thereafter. The Guidelines have also been prepared to enable each hospital to implement the said Rules in terms of segregated collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of Bio-Medical Waste. However compliance to these Rules and Guidelines are far from satisfactory. The problem of non compliance to rules for the management and handling of bio-medical waste is further compounded by lax and ineffective monitoring. In the absence of effective monitoring, violation of these rules escape detection. Shortage of staff in municipalities and PCBs are also hampering the monitoring and implementation of the waste rules. With regards to the Rules & Guidelines for Biomedical Waste Management & their implementation, an audit was done by Comptroller & Auditor General (CAG) in 2008. A study undertaken on compliance to bio-medical waste rules revealed that hospitals/ private operators were running waste disposal facilities without authorisation and segregation of biomedical waste according to categories was not being done. The waste treatment/disposal infrastructure created in the states was also inadequate. The Study emphasized that the present status of implementation of these rules is far from satisfactory and the valid conclusion is that the objectives laid down have scarcely been achieved.

Inspite of such a hopeless situation, many agencies are constantly working to strengthen biomedical waste management best practices and educational activities in India. These agencies include government bodies, non-governmental organisations, voluntary organisation, private companies etc.

  1. Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Govt of India
  2. Central Pollution Control Board
  3. Waste and Resource Management (WaRM) group of Centre for Environment Education (CEE)
  4. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, (MoHFW) Govt of India
  5. World Health Organisation (WHO)
  6. UNDP- GEF – Global Healthcare Waste Project –India
  7. Health Care Waste Management (HCWM) Cell, Dept of Community Medicine, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College (MSRMC)
  8. Toxics link
  9. Indian Society of Hospital Waste Management
  10. National Solid Waste Association of India (NSWAI)
  11. Indira Gandhi National Open University


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